13 - Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik (ra) and the Continuity of Answering-Ansar’s Deception

Answering-Ansar Article:
Nikah of Lady Umme Kulthum[sa] (Revision: 1.0.1)

Earlier in one of the expositions of Answering-Ansar’s lies, it was shown how even a narration found in one of the most prominent Islamic texts, Şaĥīĥ al-Bukhārī, became a target of their deceptive methodology of argumentation because it proves the marriage of `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb with Umm Kulthūm bint `Alī (ra). Of course, those who are familiar with Answering-Ansar and the Shī`ī paranoia concerning this marriage know that their deception would not simply end at blatantly lying about the text of the narration.

 

That narration is:

 

قال ثعلبة بن أبي مالك إن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قسم مروطا بين نساء من نساء المدينة فبقي مرط جيد فقال له بعض من عنده يا أمير المؤمنين أعط هذا ابنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم التي عندك يريدون أم كلثوم بنت علي فقال عمر أم سليط أحق وأم سليط من نساء الأنصار ممن بايع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال عمر فإنها كانت تزفر لنا القرب يوم أحد

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik said: ‘`Umar (ra) divided up some garments among some of the women of Madīna. One excellent garment remained and one of those with him said: ‘Commander of the believers! Give this to the (grand) daughter of the Messenger of Allāh (saws) to whom you are married—meaning Umm Kulthūm the daughter of `Alī. `Umar (ra) replied: ‘Umm Salīţ is more entitled. Umm Salīţ was one of the people of Anşār who had given allegiance to the Messenger of Allāh (saws).’ `Umar (ra) added: ‘She carried waterskins for us on the day of Uĥud.’”

 

·         Şaĥīĥ al-Bukhārī, of Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī (d. 256), volume 3, page 222 [Beirut]

 

After disapproving the text of this narration by lying and advancing a barrage of inane and poorly constructed linguistic arguments, the Answering-Ansar team moves on to criticize its chain of transmission.

 

They write:

 

Quoting Answering-Ansar:

Bukhari has narrated this tradition on the authority of Tha'laba bin Abi Malik who is a completely unknown personality, so there is no way to ascertain the reliability of the narrator. His name is extant from the texts of rijjal, Dhahabi who in his Meezan al Itidal had narrated the biographies of all manner of narrator makes no reference to Tha'laba bin Abi Malik.

A tradition by an unknown narrator automatically means we can discard it. Even if we accept it, the wife relation can still not be proven since Undh means close - narrators have translated it as wife in hope that they can continue to live the lie perpetuated by the Ahl'ul Sunnah, that Umar married Umme Kalthum daughter of Imam 'Ali (as).

Nikah of Lady Umme Kulthum[as], page 40

 

The people of knowledge can identify the deceptive nature of this argument as soon as they first read it. In fact, even a student of knowledge can. But for those who do not know, this analysis concerning the chain of transmission by the Answering-Ansar team is based on transparent dishonesty.

 

Answering-Ansar has stated that the chain of transmission of this narration is unreliable because it is related by Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik (ra). To support this claim, they have proposed the following points about Tha`laba (ra):

 

1.      He is not mentioned in any of the texts pertaining to rijāl [narrators of ĥadīth].

 

2.     al-Dhahabī, who includes “all manner” of narrators in his Mīzān al-I`tidāl, has not mentioned him.

 

3.      He is a completely unknown person.

 

Now, let us examine these claims and observe how much truth there is to them:

 

One – Tha`laba (ra) in the Texts of Rijāl

 

The Answering-Ansar team says that Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik’s “name is extant from the texts of rijjal.” This, unfortunately, is a barefaced lie because Tha`laba (ra) is mentioned in both Shī`ī and Sunnī texts of narrator-biographies [rijāl].

 

Such as:

 

1.      al-Ţabaqāt al-Kubrá of the Sunnī scholar Muĥammad ibn Sa`d (d. 230)

 

2.      Ma`rifat al-Thiqāt of the Sunnī scholar Abū al-Ĥasan al-`Ijlī (d. 261)

 

3.      al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr of the Sunnī scholar Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī (d. 256)

 

4.      al-Jarĥ wa al-Ta`dīl of the Sunnī scholar Ibn Abī Ĥātim (d. 327)

 

5.      al-Thiqāt of the Sunnī scholar Ibn Ĥibbān (d. 354)

 

6.      al-Rijāl of the Shī`ī scholar Abū Ja`far al-Ţūsī (d. 460)

 

7.      al-Ta`dīl wa al-Tajrīĥ of the Sunnī scholar Abū al-Walīd al-Bājī (d. 474)

 

8.      Tahdhīb al-Kamāl of the Sunnī scholar Abū al-Ĥajjāj al-Mizzī (d. 742)

 

9.      al-Kāshif of the Sunnī scholar Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748)

 

10.  Taqrīb al-Tahdhīb of the Sunnī scholar Ibn Ĥajar al-`Asqalānī (d. 852)

 

11.  Khulāşat Tadhhīb of the Sunnī scholar Şafī al-Dīn al-Khazrajī (d. 923)

 

12.  Majma` al-Rijāl of the Shī`ī scholar `Ināyat Allāh al-Quhbā’ī (d. 1016)

 

13.  Manhaj al-Maqāl of the Shī`ī scholar Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Astarābādī (d. 1028)

 

14.  Naqd al-Rijāl of the Shī`ī scholar al-Sayyid Muşţafá al-Tafrishī (d. 1044)

 

15.  Jāmi` al-Ruwāt of the Shī`ī scholar Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Ardabīlī (d. 1101)

 

16.  Itĥāf al-Khāşşa of the Sunnī scholar `Alī al-Kawkabānī (d. 1191)

 

17.  Ţarā’if al-Maqāl of the Shī`ī scholar al-Sayyid `Alī al-Burūjirdī (d. 1313)

 

18.  Tanqīĥ al-Maqāl of the Shī`ī scholar `Abd Allāh al-Māmaqānī (d. 1351)

 

19.  Mu`jam Rijāl al-Ĥadīth of the Shī`ī scholar al-Sayyid Abū al-Qāsim al-Khū’ī (d. 1412)

 

20.  Qāmūs al-Rijāl of the Shī`ī scholar Muĥammad Taqī al-Tustarī (d. 1415)

 

And in case there remains any doubt, let us also quote some of the abovementioned works so the readers know what the texts of rijāl say about him under his biographical entry [tarjama].

 

The author of the Şaĥīĥ, Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī himself, writes in al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مالك القرظي المديني كان كبيرا امام بني قريظة سمع عمر وحارثة بن النعمان وعن ابن عمر سمع منه ابن الهاد والزهري وابنه مالك

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī al-Madīnī: He was great; Imām of the tribe of Qurayža. He heard narrations from `Umar, Ĥāritha ibn al-Nu`mān and Ibn `Umar, and Ibn al-Hād, al-Zuhrī and his son Mālik heard narrations from him.”

 

·         al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr, of Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī (d. 256), volume 2, page 174 [Diyarbakir]

 

One of the head Shī`ī Ithnā’ `Asharī scholars, Abū Ja`far al-Ţūsī, writes in his Rijāl while listing the Companions (ra) who narrated from the Prophet (saws):

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مليك القرظي

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Malīk, the Quražī.”

 

·         Rijāl al-Ţūsī, of Abū Ja`far al-Ţūsī (d. 460), page 31 [Qum]

 

Abū al-Walīd al-Bājī, who was a renowned Sunnī scholar and master of narrations, also mentions in al-Ta`dīl wa al-Tajrīĥ:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مالك أبو يحيى القرظي المديني إمام مسجد بني قريظة أخرج البخاري في الجهاد وغير موضع عن الزهري عنه عن عمر بن الخطاب وقيس بن سعد قال الكلاباذي له رؤية من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik, Abū Yaĥyá, al-Quražī al-Madīnī: Imām of the mosque of the Qurayža tribe. al-Bukhārī has documented (his) narrations in the (book of) Jihād, and another place, from al-Zuhrī, and from `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb and Qays ibn Sa`d. al-Kalābādhī said: ‘His vision of the Prophet (saws) is proven.’”

 

·         al-Ta`dīl wa al-Tajrīĥ li man Kharraj `anh al-Bukhārī fī al-Jāmi` al-Şaĥīĥ, of Abū al-Walīd al-Bājī (d. 474), volume 1, page 447 [Marrakech]

 

In his voluminous and illustrious work on narrators, the Sunnī pinnacle Abū al-Ĥajjāj al-Mizzī states:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مالك القرظي حليف الأنصار أبو مالك ويقال أبو يحيى المدني إمام مسجد بني قريظة له رؤية من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī, the confederate of the Anşār, Abū Mālik—and it is said ‘Abū Yaĥyá—al-Madanī: Imām of the mosque of the Qurayža tribe. His vision of the Prophet (saws) is proven.”

 

·         Tahdhīb al-Kamāl fī Asmā’ al-Rijāl, of Abū al-Ĥajjāj al-Mizzī (d. 742), volume 4, page 397 [Beirut]

 

Whereas the major Sunnī scholar of narrations and expert in the field of its narrators, Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī, also writes in al-Kāshif:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مالك القرظي له رؤية وسمع عمر وعنه ابناه منظور وأبو مالك والزهري

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī: His vision (of the Prophet) is proven. He heard narrations from `Umar. His two sons Manžūr and Abū Mālik, and al-Zuhrī heard narrations from him.”

 

·         al-Kāshif fī Ma`rifat man lahu Riwāya min al-Kutub al-Sitta, of Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748), volume 1, page 284 [Jeddah]

 

al-Mīrzā Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Astarābādī, a major Shī`ī scholar and expert in the field of narrators, writes in Manhaj al-Maqāl:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مليك القرطي ل

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Malīk al-Quražī: A Companion of the Prophet.”

 

·         Manhaj al-Maqāl fī Taĥqīq Aĥwāl al-Rijāl, of Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Astarābādī (d. 1028), volume 3, page 130 [Qum]

 

Another Shī`ī scholar and author of one of the main texts of rijāl among the Ithnā’ `Ashariyya, al-Sayyid Muşţafá al-Tafrishī writes in the same work:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مليك القرطي من أصحاب الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Malīk al-Quražī: He is from the Companions of the Messenger (saws).”

 

·         Naqd al-Rijāl, of al-Sayyid Muşţafá al-Tafrishī (d. 1044), volume 1, page 317 [Qum]

 

Note: al-Astarābādī’s and al-Tafrishī’s printed works have a diacritical point missing from “al-Quražī” but the correct word is with a point as elucidated by Shī`ī editors.

 

Similarly, the Shī`ī scholar Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Ardabīlī also writes:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مليك القرظي ل

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Malīk al-Quražī: A Companion of the Prophet.”

 

·         Jāmi` al-Ruwāt fī Izāĥat al-Ishtibāhāt `an al-Ţuruq wa al-Isnād, of Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Ardabīlī (d. 1101), volume 1, page 140 [Qum]

 

So in short, the famous and major texts of rijāl separately mention Tha`laba (ra) with words that prove nothing but his praiseworthiness. But the Answering-Ansar team confidently “refutes” the chain of transmission by deceptively misleading their readers into thinking that the texts of rijāl do not even mention the name of Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik (ra).

 

Two – al-Dhahabī and his Mīzān al-I`tidāl

 

Answering-Ansar states about Tha`laba:

 

Quoting Answering-Ansar:

His name is extant from the texts of rijjal, Dhahabi who in his Meezan al Itidal had narrated the biographies of all manner of narrator makes no reference to Tha'laba bin Abi Malik.

Nikah of Lady Umme Kulthum[as], page 40

 

This is what one calls mixing the truth with falsehood. al-Dhahabī has mentioned the biography of Tha`laba (ra) in al-Kāshif, Tārīkh al-Islām and al-Tajrīd. A quote from al-Kāshif has already been cited and the following is what al-Dhahabī states about him in his dictionary of the Companions of the Prophet (saws), al-Tajrīd:

 

ثعلبة بن أبي مالك أبو يحيى القرظي إمام بني قريظة ولد في عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وله رؤية وطال عمره روى عنه إبنه أبو مالك وصفوان بن سليم له حديثان مرسلان

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik, Abū Yaĥyá, al-Quražī: Imām of the Qurayža tribe. He was born during the time of the Prophet (saws) and his vision (of him) is proven. He lived a long age. His son Abū Mālik and Şafwān ibn Sulaym narrated from him. He has two dispatched narrations.”

 

·         Tajrīd Asmā’ al-Şaĥāba, of Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748), volume 1, page 69 [Beirut]

 

What the Answering-Ansar team did is that they deceivingly left all these works behind and jumped to Mīzān al-I`tidāl, while covering the act by lying that the author has mentioned the biographies of “all manner” of narrators in it. The truth, however, is different. It is a known fact that al-Dhahabī has not included all types of narrators in his Mīzān. In fact, Mīzān is a work on narrators whose reliability has been questioned and therefore he has not included many narrators in it, including the Companions of the Prophet (saws).

 

He explicitly states about the Companions (ra) in the introduction of the work:

 

ولا أذكرهم في هذا المصنف فإن الضعف إنما جاء من جهة الرواة إليهم وكذا لا أذكر في كتابي من الآئمة المتبوعين في الفروع أحدا لجلالتهم في الاسلام وعظمتهم في النفوس

 

“I will not mention them in this compilation, for the weakness has come from the sub-narrators that are linked to them. Similarly, I will not mention any of the followed Imāms in this book, such as Abū Ĥanīfa, al-Shāfi`ī and al-Bukharī due their majesty in Islam and essential greatness.

 

·         Mīzān al-I`tidāl fī Naqd al-Rijāl, of Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748), volume 1, page 3 [Beirut]

 

The highly praised Shī`ī scholar al-Mīrzā Fatĥ Allāh al-Işfahānī (d. 1339) also confirms this while criticizing both Sunnīs and al-Dhahabī:

 

هذا الذهبي على إمامته وجلالته عندهم تأنف من ذكر الصحابة في كتابه

 

“This al-Dhahabī, despite of his scholarly leadership and loftiness according to them, utterly detested the mention of the Companions in his book.”

 

·         al-Qawl al-Şurāĥ fī al-Bukhārī wa Şaĥīĥih al-Jāmi`, of Fatĥ Allāh al-Işfahānī (d. 1339), page 42 [Qum]

 

Thus, the reason why al-Dhahabī has not included Tha`laba (ra) in his Mīzān is because he is a Companion, as mentioned by him in al-Tajrīd, not because he is unknown, and Answering-Ansar’s claim that al-Dhahabī has included the “biographies of all manner” of narrators in it is yet another example of their dishonesty and misrepresentation of Sunnī texts.

 

Three – “Completely Unknown”?

 

It has been shown above that the biography of Tha`laba (ra) has been mentioned in over a dozen Sunnī and Shī`ī texts of narrator-biographies. If someone actually goes through other texts such as compilations of narrations, commentaries and genealogical works, there is no doubt that a lot more can be read about Tha`laba (ra).

 

Grand Āyat Allāh al-Sayyid Muĥsin al-Amīn al-`Āmilī (d. 1371) writes in A`yān al-Shī`a:

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Malīk:

 

al-Shaykh [al-Ţūsī] has mentioned him among the Companions of the Messenger (saws). This is how the Shaykh has named his father, ‘Abī Malīk.’ However, it is ‘ibn Abī Mālik’ in al-Ţabaqāt, al-Istī`āb, Usd al-Ghāba, al-Işāba and Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb.

 

Muĥammad ibn Sa`d said in al-Ţabaqāt al-Kabīr:

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī: The name of ‘Abī Mālik’ is `Abd Allāh ibn Sām, and Tha`laba is given the cognomen of ‘Abū Yaĥyá.’ Abī Mālik came from Yemen and said: ‘We are from the tribe of Kindah which is on the Jewish religion.’ He then married into the Ibn Sa`ya (family) of the Qurayža tribe and confederated with them; thus it was said: ‘the Quražī.’ He has narrated from `Umar and `Uthmān. He used be given the cognomen of ‘Abū Ja`far.’ Tha`laba was Imām of the tribe of Qurayža until he passed away. He was great and did not narrate many narrations.’

 

It is in al-Istī`āb:

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī: He was born during the time of the Prophet (saws). The name of ‘Abī Mālik’ is `Abd Allāh, and he—meaning, Tha`laba—is given the cognomen of ‘Abū Yaĥyá’ from Kindah. His father came from Yemen, on the Jewish religion. He was accommodated by the Qurayža tribe and thus he is ascribed to them. He was not one of them, so he accepted Islam. He narrated from `Umar, `Uthmān and all the Companions.’

 

It is in Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb:

 

Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī, the confederate of the Anşār, Abū Mālik—and it is said ‘Abū Yaĥyá.’ His vision (of the Prophet) is proven. He narrated from the Prophet (saws), `Umar, `Uthmān, Jābir, Ĥāritha ibn al-Nu`mān and a large group. His two sons Abū Mālik and Manžūr, al-Zuhrī, al-Miswar ibn Rifā`a, Muĥammad ibn `Uqba ibn Abī Mālik al-Quražī, Şafwān ibn Sulaym and others narrated from him. al-Bukhārī said: ‘He was great, Imām of the tribe of Qurayža and on the Jewish religion. He married a woman from the tribe of Qurayža and thus he was ascribed to them, while he was (originally) from Kindah. Tha`laba used to lead the tribe of Qurayža in his youth. Abū Ĥātim said: ‘He is from the predecessors.’ al-`Ijlī said: ‘A trustworthy predecessor.’ And Ibn Ĥibbān mentioned him in al-Thiqāt [“The Trustworthy Narrators”].’

 

It is not known whether he falls under the condition of our book.

 

·         A`yān al-Shī`a, of al-Sayyid Muĥsin al-Amīn (d. 1371), volume 4, page 22 [Beirut]

 

To sum up all of the aforementioned information about Tha`laba (ra) present in Shī`ī and Sunnī texts, it is known that:

 

·         His ancestors were from Yemen.

 

·         He was born during the time of the Prophet (saws) and lived a long life.

 

·         He was a Companion of the Prophet (saws).

 

·         His cognomen was Abū Mālik—others also said Abū Yaĥyá.

 

·         He was a confederate of the Anşār.

 

·         He narrated from `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb, `Uthmān ibn `Affān (ra), and others.

 

·         His sons, al-Zuhrī, and others narrated from him.

 

·         He was the Imām of the Qurayža tribe until his demise.

 

In spite of this information that is spread throughout innumerous Shī`ī and Sunnī texts, the Answering-Ansar team says that Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik (ra) is “a completely unknown personality.”

 

Can this be called anything but outright lying?

 

Conclusion

 

It has been evidently shown that Tha`laba ibn Abī Mālik (ra) is not an unknown or unreliable narrator, rather a Companion of the Prophet (saws) whose biography is present in innumerous Shī`ī and Sunnī texts, and particularly the texts of rijāl.

 

Yet the Answering-Ansar team chose to explicitly say:

 

Quoting Answering-Ansar:

Bukhari has narrated this tradition on the authority of Tha'laba bin Abi Malik who is a completely unknown personality, so there is no way to ascertain the reliability of the narrator. His name is extant from the texts of rijjal, Dhahabi who in his Meezan al Itidal had narrated the biographies of all manner of narrator makes no reference to Tha'laba bin Abi Malik.

A tradition by an unknown narrator automatically means we can discard it. Even if we accept it, the wife relation can still not be proven since Undh means close - narrators have translated it as wife in hope that they can continue to live the lie perpetuated by the Ahl'ul Sunnah, that Umar married Umme Kalthum daughter of Imam 'Ali (as).

Nikah of Lady Umme Kulthum[as], page 40

 

Once again, it has been shown how Answering-Ansar chooses deceptive methods of argumentation by blatantly lying about narrators and Islamic texts for the sole reason of denying a narration that goes against their view.

 

Is this what the Answering-Ansar team means by their motto, “Revealing the Truth”?

 

We will let the readers decide.

 

As for the “Undh” absurdity, that has been covered in one of the earlier expositions.

 

It is only Allah (swt) who gives success, and blessings and peace be upon the Seal of the Prophets, his Pure Progeny and his Noble Companions

 

               

 

 

 

_______________________________________________________________ 

Works Cited

 

Shī`ī texts:

 

1.       Rijāl al-Ţūsī

Abū Ja`far al-Ţūsī (d. 460)

Muassasat al-Nashr al-Islami

Qum, Iran

 

2.       Manhaj al-Maqāl fī Taĥqīq Aĥwāl al-Rijāl

Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Astarābādī (d. 1028)

Muassasat Al al-Bayt li Ihya wa al-Turath

Qum, Iran

 

3.       Naqd al-Rijāl

al-Sayyid Muşţafá al-Tafrishī (d. 1044)

Muassasat Al al-Bayt li Ihya wa al-Turath

Qum, Iran

 

4.       Jāmi` al-Ruwāt fī Izāĥat al-Ishtibāhāt `an al-Ţuruq wa al-Isnād

Muĥammad ibn `Alī al-Ardabīlī (d. 1101)

Maktabat al-Muhammadi

Qum, Iran

 

5.       al-Qawl al-Şurāĥ fī al-Bukhārī wa Şaĥīĥih al-Jāmi`

Fatĥ Allāh al-Işfahānī (d. 1339)

I`timad

Qum, Iran

 

6.       A`yān al-Shī`a

al-Sayyid Muĥsin al-Amīn (d. 1371)

Dar al-Ta`aruf

Beirut, Lebanon

 

Sunnī texts:

 

7.       Şaĥīĥ al-Bukhārī

Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī (d. 256)

Dar al-Fikr

Beirut, Lebanon

 

8.       al-Tārīkh al-Kabīr

Abū `Abd Allāh al-Bukhārī (d. 256)

al-Maktabat al-Islamiyya

Diyarbakir, Turkey

 

9.       al-Ta`dīl wa al-Tajrīĥ li man Kharraj `anh al-Bukhārī fī al-Jāmi` al-Şaĥīĥ

Abū al-Walīd al-Bājī (d. 474)

Wizarat al-Awqaf wa al-Shu’un al-Islamiyya

Marrakech, Morocco

 

10.    Tahdhīb al-Kamāl fī Asmā’ al-Rijāl

Abū al-Ĥajjāj al-Mizzī (d. 742)

Mu’assasat al-Risala

Beirut, Lebanon

 

11.    al-Kāshif fī Ma`rifat man lahu Riwāya min al-Kutub al-Sitta

Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748)

Dar al-Qibla li al-Thaqafa al-Islamiyya

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

12.    Tajrīd Asmā’ al-Şaĥāba

Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748)

Dar al-Ma`rifa

Beirut, Lebanon

 

13.    Mīzān al-I`tidāl fī Naqd al-Rijāl

Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d. 748)

Dar al-Ma`rifa

Beirut, Lebanon 

 

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